Laparoscopic preperitoneal alloplasty of postoperative ventral hernias
Objective. To raise the efficacy of surgical treatment of postoperative ventral hernias, performing laparoscopic preperitoneal allohernioplasty.
Materials and metods. Analysis of the surgical treatment results was conducted in 126 patients, suffering postoperative ventral hernias, ageing from 30 to 75 yrs old, who were operated on in the Clinic of Department of Surgery and Proctology of Shupyk National Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education in 2012 - 2019 yrs, was conducted. There were 80 (63.5%) women-patients, and 46 (36.5%) men-patients. Average age of the patients have constituted (54.7 ± 3.3) yrs old.
In accordance to classification of European Association of Surgeons-Herniologists (The European Hernia Society - EHS, Gent, Belgium, 2008 yr) distribution of postoperative hernias was following: hernias M1W1R0 were diagnosed in 6 (4.8%) patients, M2W1R0 - in 12 (9.5%), M2W2R0 - in 14 (11.1%), M3W1R0 - in 10 (7.9%), M3W2R0 - in 11 (8.7%), M3W3R0 - in 8 (6.3%), M4W1R0 - in 7 (5.6%), M4W2R0 - in 3 (2.4%), M4W3R0 - in 5 (4.0%), M5W1R0 - in 8 (6.3%), M5W2R0 - in 4 (3.2%), M2-3W2R0 - in 19 (15.1%), M3-4W2R0 - in 8 (6.3%), M3-4W3R0 - in 4 (3,2%), M1-4W3R0 - in 4 (3.2%), M3-5W3R0 - in 3 (2.4%). The patients with large POVH (W3) and diastasis of abdominal rectal muscles more than 5 cm were not included in the investigation. Depending on procedure of allohernioplasty performed for postoperative ventral hernias the patients were distributed into two Groups. In Group I in 63 (50%) patients the improved laparoscopic preperitoneal allohernioplasty with transfascial suturing of the abdominal wall defect edges was performed. In Group II in 63 (50%) patients open preperitoneal allohernioplasty was done. In both Groups of the patients light polypropylene nets were used for allohernioplasty.
Results. Laparoscopic alloplasty of postoperative ventral hernias with transfascial sutures, which were applied in Group I, have had essential advantages: significant lesser intensity of postoperative pain, reduction of the seroma rate by 94% - relative risk 0.06 (0.01 - 0.28), p<0.001; risk of suppuration in postoperative wound by 90% - relative risk 0.10 (0.01 - 1.98), p=0.211; risk of chronic infiltrate occurrence by 86% - relative risk 0.14 (0.01 - 2.70), p=0.369. In general, concerning morbidity (immediate results), the risk lowering for their occurrence have enhanced by 93% - relative risk 0.07 (0.02 - 0.28), p<0.001 in patients of Group I in comparison with patients of Group II. Late results of surgical treatment of postoperative ventral hernias also confirms the advantage of laparoscopic preperitoneal allohernioplasty with transfascial suturing of the defect edges over open preperitoneal alloplasty: reduction of risk in chronic pain development in part of anterior abdominal wall by 68% - relative risk 0.32 (0.03 - 3.18), p=0.617 and risk of the recurrent hernia development by 87% - relative risk 0.13 (0.01 - 2.67), p=0.367.
Conclusion. Performance of laparoscopic preperitoneal allohernioplasty for postoperative ventral hernias (Group I of patients) due to minimization of surgical dissection of the abdominal wall tissues is accompanied by significantly lesser intensity of postoperative pain and lesser rate of morbidity, comparing with open preperitoneal allohernioplasty (Group II), especially: in Group I a seroma rate have constituted 3.2%, in Group II - 34.9%, in Group I suppuration of postoperative wound was not noted, inflammatory infiltrate of abdominal wall, in Group II a rate of these complications have constituted 6.4 and 4.8% accordingly, in Group I chronic postoperative pain was noted in 2.1% of patients, in Group II - in 6.3%, in Group I hernia recurrence was absent, in Group II hernia recurrence rate have constituted 6.3%.
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