Express procedure of intraoperative estimation of viability of small bowel in experiment and clinic
Objective. Elaboration of effective and informative method of the small intestine viability determination for improvement of the surgical treatment results in pathologies, which need performance of resection of its segments.
Materials and methods. The work is considered as experimentally-clinic one. Its experimental part was conducted on the rats; temporary ischemia was simulated, using application of tourniquet on the intestinal loop, taken from abdominal cavity after doing laparotomy; the animals were distributed on the groups, depending on the ischemia duration applied. Clinical part of the investigation was performed on 68 patients, including a control group of 50 patients, in whom intestinal resection was done, taking into account subjective estimation of the gut viability, and the main group, consisted of 18 patients, in whom intestinal resection was performed, basing on the gut viability estimation data, obtained using the method elaborated.
Results. In the animals, on which temporary noncritical ischemia (up to 10 min) was simulated, the ischemia zone did not differed visually from other intestinal segments, while after persistence of ischemia up to 20- and 25-min the changes have had appeared necrotic with presence of peritonitis. Studying of intestinal specimen in the animals, in whom an acute ischemia was simulated, have shown the mostly expressed changes in endotheliocytes of microcirculatory bed, depending on duration of the ischemia dystrophic changes have been enhanced up to destructive. Total electric resistance (іmpedance) was measured on various frequencies. On all the frequencies, the raising of total electric resistance with more durable ischemia period was observed.
Conclusion. Changes of total electric resistance are reflecting the degree of the blood flow disorder in intestinal wall and may be exploited as a criterion of determination of its viability (capacity of the anastomosis to heal). Objectivization of estimation of the intestinal wall state reduces the quantity of resection of injured intestinal segment and the morbidity.
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