Volume of surgical intervention in renal cancer, complicated by invasion of tumoral thrombus into venous wall
Objective. To determine the volume of surgical intervention on vena cava inferior in renal cancer, complicated by invasion of tumoral thrombus into the vein wall.
Materials and methods. Into the investigation were included 147 patients, suffering renal cancer, complicated by tumoral venous thrombosis, who were treated surgically in the Zakarpattya Regional Clinical Hospital named after Andriy Novak or in the Zakarpattya Antitumoral Centre in 2005 - 2020 yrs. The patients’ age varied from 27 to 79 yrs old, their average age have constituted 58 yrs old. There were 97 (66%) men and 50 (34%) women. The null level of venous spread of tumoral thrombus was diagnosed in 55 (37.4%), І – in 32 (21.8%), ІІ – in 30 (20.4%), ІІІ – in 22 (15.0%), and IV - in 8 (5.4%) patients. The tumor was localized in right kidney in 51 (34.7%) patients. Surgical treatment in all the patients was performed - nephrectomy and various interventions on the vein. Longitudinal resection of the vein was performed in 55 (37.4%), resection with suturing of alloflap - in 5 (3.4%), circular resection with prosthesis “end-to-end” - in 4 (2.7%) patients. In the tumoral thrombus localization, including a renal vein, the uxtaosteum resection was performed in 100% of the patients.
Results. Average duration of the operation was 165 (102 - 292) min, average volume of the blood loss - 780 (240 - 2250) ml. Mild and moderate postoperative complications in accordance to classification of Clavien-Dindo (Degree I - II) was registered in 38 (21.8%), and the severe (Degree ІІІ - V) - in 6 (4.1%) patients. Surgical complications of Degree III or complications, which demanded urgent relaparotomy, were not observed. In early postoperative period 1 patient died. General postoperative lethality have constituted 0.7%. In all the patients a laminar blood flow was preserved. In no one patient the prosthesis thrombosis, recurrence of the prosthesis thrombus, recurrence of tumoral venous thrombus or pulmonary thromboembolism.
Conclusion. Radical method of surgical treatment of renal cancer, complicated by tumoral thrombosis of vena cava inferior, must include nephrectomy, cavatomy, thrombectomy, various variants of resection and prosthesis of the vein. In the null level of the tumoral thrombus venous spread the performance of uxtaosteum resection of renal vein is obligatory.
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